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1 or 2 code units of 16 bits = 2 bytes

If 2 code units, first one is in 0xD800-0xDBFF, second one is in 0xDC00-0xDFFF.

  • First one: 6 fixed bits (0b110110) then 4 bits encoding the Unicode plan (minus one: 1-16 become 0-15) then 6 first bits from inside the plan - note that the plan number is splitted between the two last bits of the first byte and the two first bits of the second byte
  • Second one: 6 fixed bits (0b110111) then 10 last bits from inside the plan

Non-private astral planes 0x10000-0xEFFFF are encoded in UTF-16: [\uD800-\uDAFF\uDB00-\uDB7F][\uDC00-\uDFFF]

Astral planes are encoded in UTF-16: [\uD800-\uDBFF][\uDC00-\uDFFF]